Unit 16: The wonders of the world – Các kì quan của thế giới

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Unit 16: The wonders of the world – Các kì quan của thế giới

GRAMMAR

Cấu trúc: It is said that…được dùng để tường thuật hay đưa tin tức. Ta có thể dùng cấu trúc tương tự với một số động từ như: thought (nghĩ); believed (tin rằng); considered (xem xét, cho là); reported (báo cáo); known (biết); expected (mong chờ); alleged (buộc tội); understood (hiểu).

e.g: – Cathy works Very hard. (Cathy làm việc rất chăm chỉ.)

It is said that she works 16 hours a day.

(Người ta nói rằng cô ấy làm việc 16 giờ một ngày.)

–   The police are lookins for a missing boy.

(Cảnh sát đang tìm kiếm đứa bé mất tích.)

It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.

(Ngươi ta tin là đứa bé mặc một cái áo thun trắng và quần bò xanh )

READING

Before you read

Below are two famous man-made wonders of the world. Look at them and answer the questions. (Dưới đây là hai kì quan nổi tiếng do con ngời tạo ra. Nhìn vào chúng và trả lời các câu hỏi.)

1. Can you name these two wonders of the world?

—> These two wonders are Great Pyramid Cheop (Khufu), and the Taj Mahal.

2. Where do you think they are located?

—> The Great pyramid Cheop is in Cairo, Egypt, and the Taj Mahal in India.

3. What do you know about them?

—>They were built as tombs for their royal families. The Great Pyramid was built over 4000 years ago. And the Taj Mahal was built from 1630 to 1652 by an Indian king.

While you read

Read the passage and then do the task that follow. (Đọc kĩ đoạn văn và sau đó làm nhiệm vụ tiếp theo.)

ĐẠI KIM TỰ THÁP GIZA

Đại Kim Tự Tháp Giza được xây dựng bởi các Pharaoh Ai Cập vào khoảng 2560 năm trước công nguyên. Mục đích của kim tự tháp bằng đá khổng lồ này là làm mộ cho Pharaoh sau khi qua đời và để bảo vệ phòng chôn cất khỏi thời tiết và những tên trộm cố gắng ăn cắp các kho báu và của cái ở đó. Đại Kim tự Tháp được cho là được xây dựng trong khoảng thời gian 20 năm. Vị trí xây dựng được chuẩn bị đầu tiên và sau đó các khối đá khổng lồ được vận chuyển và đưa vào ghép nối với nhau.

Khi hoàn thành, Kim Tự Tháp cao 147 mét, được đặt trên một bệ móng rộng 230 mét vuông. Nó được xếp vào hàng cấu trúc cao nhất trên thế giới trong vòng 43 thế kỉ, chỉ bị vượt qua về chiều cao ở thế kỉ XIX sau Công nguyên. Kết cấu bao gồm khoảng 2 triệu khối đá, mỗi khối nặng khoảng 2,5 tấn. Người ta cho rằng khối lượng đá xây ba kim tự tháp đủ để xây dựng một bức tường thành cao 3m, dày 3m vòng quanh nước Pháp.

Mặc dù không ai biết làm thế nào các khối đã được ghép lại với nhau, một sô giả thuyết được đưa ra. Một giả thuyết cho rằng người ta xây dựng một đoạn đường dốc thẳng hoặc xoắn ốc trong quá trình xây dựng Kim Tự tháp. Giả thuyết thứ hai cho rằng các khối đã được nâng lên và xếp lại với nhau bằng cách sử dụng hàng ngàn cánh tay khổng lổ, lực lưỡng.

Ngày nay, Đại Kim Tự Tháp Giza đã được xây rào kín xung quanh cùng với các Kim Tự Tháp khác trong khu vực du lịch của đồng bằng Giza trên bỡ phía Tây của sóng Nile. Cũng trong khu vực này cũng có bảo tàng trưng bày Con thuyền Mặt Trời huyền bí được phát hiện vào năm 1954 gần phía Nam của Kim Tự Tháp. Chiếc thuyền này được cho là đã được dùng để chở xác của Khufu (cheops) chuyến du hành cuối cùng của ông trên mặt đất trước khi được chôn cất bên trong Kim Tự Tháp.

Task 1. The words in the box all appear in the passage. Fill each blank with a suitable word. (Những từ trong khung xuất hiện trong đoạn văn. Điền vào chỗ trống một từ thích hợp.)

Mysterious           ramp               tomb

Chamber              spiral               wonder

1. Last week we paid a visit to the tomb of an unknow n mandarin.

2. The movie was about a wonder of the world.

3. A ramp is needed at the exit and entrance for wheelchairs users.

4. The Queen’s private chamber is not opened to public.

5. It’s not known why Beson disappeared in mysterious circumstances.

7. A snail’s shell is spiral in form.

Task 2. Answer the following questions. (Trả lời những câu hỏi sau đây.)

1. Where is the Great Pyramid of Giza situated and when was it built?

—> It is located on the west bank of the River Nile and it was built around the year 2560 B.C.

2. How high and large was the Great Pyramid of Giza?

—> It was about 147 metres high on a base of 230 metres square.

3. What was the purpose of this huge stone Pyramid?

—> The purpose of this huge stone Pyramid was to serve as a tomb when the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu died and to protect the burial chamber from the weather and from thieves who might try to steal the treasures and belongings there.

Unit 16: The wonders of the world - Các kì quan của thế giới

Unit 16: The wonders of the world – Các kì quan của thế giới

4. How did the people of ancient Egypt build the Great Pyramid?

—> It is thought that the ancient Egyptian used straight or spiral ramps/or huge weight arms to lift and place the blocks of stone.

5. According to the passage, what is the boat believed to have been used for?

—> The boat is believed to have been used to carry the body of Khufu in his last journey on earth before being buried inside the pyramid.

Task 3. Scan the text and say what the following words refer to. (Đọc lướt đoạn văn và nói những từ sau chỉ gì?)

1. who (line 4) refers to the thieves.

2. it (line 8) refers to the Great Pyramid.

3. it (line 9) refers to the Great Pyramid.

4. each (line 12) refers to the block of stone.

SPEAKING

Task 1. The sentences below all appear in the reading passage.

Work in pairs. Which sentences express facts (F) and which ones, opinions (O)? Put a tick (V) in the right column. (Làm việc theo cặp. Xác định các câu sau đây câu nào là sự thật, câu nào là quan điểm.)

1. The Great Pyramid is believed to have been built over a 20-year period. O

2. The Great Pyramid was 147 metres high. F

3. The Great Pyramid ranked as the tallest structure on earth for more than 43 centuries. F

4. The structure consisted of approximately 2 million blocks of stone. F

5. One theory involves the construction of a straight or spiral ramp that was raised as the construction proceeded. O

6. A second theory suggests that the blocks were lifted and placed using thousands of huge weight arms. O

7. The boat is believed to have been used to carry the body of Khufu in his last joumey on earth before being buried inside the pyramid. OTask 2. Work in pairs. Tell your partner about some facts and opinions of the Great Pyramid of Giza, using the information in Task I. (Làm việc theo cặp. Giới thiệu bạn học cùng bạn về một số sự thật và quan điểm về Đại Kim Tự Tháp Giza, sử dụng thông tin trong Task 1.)

A: Hi, What are you doing?

B: I’m searching for some wonders of the world.

A: Great. Can you tell me something about the Great Pyramid of Giza?

B: What do you need to know about it?

A: Who built the Great Pyramid of Giza?

B: I think the Great Pyramid of Giza was built by a giant.

Task 3. Work in groups. Discuss possible answers to the following question, using the suggestions below. (Làm việc theo nhóm. Thảo luận về câu trả lời cho các câu hỏi sau đây, sử dụng các gợi ý dưới đây.)

  • Who built the Great Pyramid of Giza?
  • How long did it take to build it?
  • Where did the builders find the stones?
  • How could they build the Pyramid so high?

Useful language:

– I think /I am sure….

– It is said that …

– The pyramid is said / believed / thought to have been …

– Probably they…

– They must /can / may / might have …

A: How long did it take to build it?

B: It is believed/ said/supposed/thought that the Great Pyramid was built over a 20-year period.

A: Where did the builders find the stones?

B: The stones are believed/ said/ supposed/ thought to be found in Everest Mountain.

A: How did they transport them?

B: The stones are believed/ said/ supposed/ thought to be transported by thousands of huge weight arms.

A: How could thev build the Great Pyramid of Giza?

B: People say/ think/ believe/ suppose that its construction of a straight or spiral ramp that was raised as the construction proceeded. The blocks were lifted and placed using thousands of huge weight arms.

LISTENING

Before you listen

Look at the picture and answer the question that follow. (Nhìn vào bức ảnh và trả lời câu hỏi tiếp theo.)

  • What can you see in the picture?
  • Where do you think it is?
  • When did you think it was built?

Task 1. Listen to the passage about the Great Wall of China and fill in the missing information. (Nghe đoạn văn vế Vạn Lv Trin’mg Thành của Trung Ouốc và điền vào các thônq (in còn thiểu.)

1. the moon                          2.1987

3. the Ming Dynasty              4.200

5. 200 B.C                            6. 6000km

7. 11 metres                         8. stones

THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA

The Great Wall of China, which is said to be visible from the moon, winds up and down across deserts, grasslands and mountains of 5 provinces. It is considered as one of the greatest man-made wonders in the world thanks to its magnificence and significance. In 1987. the Great Wall was listed as a World Heritage by UNESCO.

The Great Wall as we see today was mostly built during the Ming Dynasty for defence purposes. It started in 1368 and took 200 years to complete. Some parts of the wall are much older and goes back to around 200 B.C. It stretches for about 6,000km from east to west. The wall is about 11 meters high and a stone roadway runs along the top of it.

The Great Wall is a symbol of the Chinese nation throughout history. If you prefer to see the wall in a relatively natural state, you’d better 20 to northwest of Beijing. This part of the wall is the best choice because it is still in original state. A visit to the Great Wall will certainly bring tourists great excitement in each step of the wall.

Task 2. Listen to the passage again and answer the questions. (Nghe đoạn văn một lần nữa và trả lời các câu hỏi.)

1. When did the ancient Chinese start building the Great Wall?

—> The ancient Chinese started to build the Great Wall in 1368.

2. How many provinces does the wall cover?

—> Five provinces.

3. Why is it considered one of the greatest man-made wonders in the world?

—> Because it can be seen from the moon.

4. Which part of the wall is the best choice for visit? Why?

—> The part of the northwest of Beijing is the best choice for visit because it is still in its original state.

After you listen

Work in groups. Tell your partners why the Great Wall is considered one of the greatest wonders in the world and how it was built. (Làm việc theo nhóm. Nói cho bạn học của bạn lí do tại sao Vạn Lý Trường Thành được xem là một trong những kì quan vĩ đại nhất trên thế giới và nó được xây dựng như thế nào?)

WRITING

Below are some notes made by a visitor to the Ponagar Cham Towers in Nha Trang. Use her/ his notes to write a report on the visit. (Dưới đây là một số ghi chép của một khách thăm Tháp Chàm Ponagar ở Nha Trang. Sử dụng những ghi chép của cô/ anh ấy để viết một tường thuật về chuyến thăm này.)

Last year, during my stay in Nha Trang, I had a brief lour to Ponagar Cham Towers, one of the most beautiful examples of Cham architecture in central Vietnam.

The Ponagar Cham Towers consist of four towers. They are located on Cu Lao Marble Hill, two kilometers north of Nha Trang. They were built between the 8th and 13th centuries.

The remaining towers were dedicated to different god. The larsest tower was built in honor of Lady Thien Y. The 22.5m high tower contains her sandstone statue sitting on Buddha’s throne. The 2.6m high statue has 10 hands, holding specific objects illustrating the power of Buddha.

The tour to Ponagar Cham Towers lasted 5 hours. I was rather tired, but the tour was enjoyable, memorable and informative.

LANGUAGE FOCUS

Exercise 1. Rewrite each of the following sentences in such a way that it means almost the same as the sentence printed before it.

1. It is said that many people are homeless after the floods.

—> Many people are said to be homeless after the floods.

2. It is thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over the wall.

—> The prisoner is thought to escape by climbing over the wall.

3. It is believed that he drove through the town at 90km an hour.

—> He is believed to drive through the town at 90km an hour.

4. It is reported that two people were seriously injured in the accident.

—> Two people are reported to be seriously injured in the accident.

5. It is said that three men were arrested after the explosion.

—> Three men are said to be arrested after the explosion.

6. It is expected that the strike will begin tomorrow.

—> The strike is expected to begin tomorrow.

7. It is said that he speaks English very well.

—> He is said to speak English very well.

Exercise 2. Rewrite each of the following sentences in such a way that it means almost the same as the sentence printed before it.

1. People think that he is very clever.

—> He is thought to be very clever.

2. People believe that the wanted man is living in New York.

—> The wanted man is believed to be living in the New York.

3. People know that he is very rich.

—>  He is known to be very rich.

4. People suppose that the film is very good.

—> The film is supposed to be very good.

5. People think that many people were killed in the accident.

—> Many people are thought to be killed in the accident.

6. People think that about a million puppies are born each year.

—> About a million puppies are thought to be born each year.

7. People say that the factories are much worse.

—> The factories are said to be much worse.

8. People say that those dogs are dangerous.

—> Those dogs are said to be dangerous.

TEST YOURSELF F

I. LISTENING

Listen to the passage about Man in Space and decide whether the statements are True (T) or False (F). (Nghe đoạn văn về Người trong vũ trụ và quyết định việc các báo cáo đúng (T) hoặc sai (F).)

1. The first artificial satellite was launched on 4th  October, 1957.    T

2. Many other heavier sputniks and rockets have been launched by the former Soviet Union and other countries since that time.          F

3. The first manned spaceship was launched on 20th  April, 1961.        F

4. Yuri Gagarin, the Soviet pilot, took mankind’s first step into space.         T

5. This historical event has proved that step by step man can conquer outer space.         T

TAPE SCRIPT

On 4th October, 1957 Moscow radio broadcast the news of the tremendous achievements, the former Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite. The Russian word “sputnik” in one day became an international word. Since that time, the former Soviet Union has launched many other heavier sputniks and rockets to trail the path of man to the planets and the stars.

The whole world was waiting for the first manned space flight. Few people doubted that it would happen in the former Soviet Union. Nevertheless, the actual flight came as a complete surprise. On 12th April 1961, a Soviet Union pilot, Yuri Gagarin, took mankind’s firsi step into space. This historical event has provided that man can reach out and touch the distant stars and discover the secrets of the universe.

II. READING

Read the passage and answer the questions. (Đọc kĩ đoạn văn và trả lời các câu hỏi.)

Trong thế kỉ 19 và 20, nhiều phát minh rất quan trọng đã được thực hiện trong y học. Ví dụ, vào năm 1895, một bác sĩ người Đức tên là Roentgen phát triển máy X-quang. Một nhà khoa học Anh là Sir Alexander Flemming phát hiện ra penicillin, kháng sinh đầu tiên vào năm 1928. Kháng sinh là loại thuốc chống lại bệnh tật trong cơ thể. Flemming phát hiện ra thuốc penicillin phát triển trong nấm trên một miếng bánh mì cũ.

Nhiều cải tiến tuyệt vời khác đã được thực hiện trong công nghệ y học. Các bác sĩ có thể cứu mạng con người bằng cách cho họ một trái tim mới hoặc một quả thận mới. Bệnh viện có nhiều máy điện toán và máy móc hiện đại có thể giúp người bệnh sống một cuộc sống tốt hơn. Y học ngày nay rất hiện đại, nhưng nó cũng theo lối cổ truyền ở một số nơi trên thế giới. Ở Trung Quốc và các quốc gia khác ở châu Á, các bác sĩ sử dụng châm cứu. một phương pháp rất cổ để điều trị bệnh đau nhức. Châm cứu sử dụng kim để giúp cơ thể con người chống lại sự đau đớn của bệnh tật. Các bác sĩ đã sử dụng phương pháp này trong hàng ngàn năm, và một số vẫn còn sử dụng, nó ngày hôm nay.

1. When were many very important discoveries made in medicine?

—   >Many very important discoveries were made in medicine in the 19th and 20lh centuries.

2. Who developed the X-ray machine in 1895?

—> A German doctor named Roentgen developed the X-ray machine in 1895.

3. When was penicillin, the first antibiotic, discovered?

—> It was discovered in 1928.

4. What can doctors do to save people’s lives and help them live better today?

—> Doctors can save people’s lives by giving them a new heart or a new kidney. Hospitals have large computers and machines that help sick people live better.

5. What is acupuncture?

—> It is a very old method of treating sickness and pain. It uses needles to help the human body fight pain and disease.

III. GRAMMAR

Rewrite each of the following sentences in a such way that it means almost the same as the sentence printed before it. (Viết lại mỗi câu sau sao cho nó có nghĩa gần giống với câu in trước nó.)

1. People think that Jane is very rich.

—>  Jane is thought to be very rich.

2. It is said that she won a special prize.

—>  She is said to have won a special prize.

3. People say that he knows five foreign languages.

—> He is said to know five foreign languages.

4. It is thought that the thief got in throuch the kitchen window.

—> The thief is thought to have got in through the kitchen window.

IV. WRITING

Write a biography of Mark Twain, using the following information: Known as one of the greatest American writers. (Viết bài tiểu sử về Murk Twain, bằng cách sử dụng các thông tin sau: Được biết đến như là một trong những nhà văn vĩ đại nhất của Mĩ.)

Known as one of the greatest American writers

Real name: Samuel Langhorne Clemens

1835: born in Missouri

Childhood:    grew up on the banks of the Mississippi River

During; Civil War:    – started writing

– worked as a newspaperman in Nevada and California

1870: married Olivia Langdon

Career: was also a famous lecturer, travelled around he country, giving talks on a variety of subjects

Works: – best novels: “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer”and “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”

– another novel: “Life on the Mississippi”, which told of his adventures on the river boats of his era

1909: last novel was written

1910: died at the age of 75

Mark Twain, one of the greatest American writers, was born in Missouri in 1835. His real name was Samuel Langhome Clemens. He spent his childhood on the riversides of the Mississippi River. Twain starred writing during the Mississippi River During Civil War. He worked as a newspaperman in Nevada and California. In 1870, he married Olivia Langdon. He was also a famous lecturer and travelled around the country, giving talks on a variety of subjects. The “Life on the Mississippi” told about his adventures on the river boats. Among his novels are best ones: “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” and “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”. He wrote his last novel in 1909, and he died, at the age of 74.

Unit 16: The wonders of the world – Các kì quan của thế giới

Thảo luận cho bài: Unit 16: The wonders of the world – Các kì quan của thế giới