Unit 11: Sources of energy – Các nguồn năng lượng

Rate this post

Unit 11: Sources of energy – Các nguồn năng lượng

Unit 12: The Asian Games – Đại hội thể thao Châu Á

READING

Before you read

Work in pairs. Answer the following questions. (Làm việc theo cặp. Trả lời các câu hỏi sau.)

1. What source of enerey does each picture above refer to?

Wind energy (năng lượng gió)

Solar energy- (năng lượng mặt trời)

Water energy (năng lượng nước)

2. What do we need eneray for?

—> We need energy to cook to light to heat or cool the house and to run machines…

(Chúng tôi cần năng lượng để nấu các bữa ăn, thắp sáng, sưởi ấm hoặc làm mát nhà của và để chạy máy…)

While you read

Read the passage and then do the tasks that follow. (Đọc kĩ đoạn văn và sau đó làm các nhiệm vụ tiếp theo.)

Hiện nay, hầu hết năng lượng của chúng tôi đến từ nhiên liệu hóa thạch (than, dầu và khí tự nhiên). Tuy nhiên, dự trữ còn hạn chế. Bởi vì nhu cầu điện đang tăng rất nhanh, nhiên liệu hóa thạch sẽ cạn kiệt trong một thời gian tương đối ngắn. Vì vậy, ngườì ta phải phát triển và sử dụng các nguồn năng lượng thay thế.

Một nguồn năng lượng thay thế là nguồn năng lượng hạt nhân. Năng lượng hạt nhân có thể cung cấp đủ điện cho các nhu cầu của thế giới trong hàng trăm năm, nhưng nó có thể rất nguy hiểm. Một nguồn năng lượng thay thế là địa nhiệt đến từ sâu bên trong trái đất. Các nhà khoa học sử dụng nhiệt để tạo ra năng lượng. Tuy nhiên, năng lượng này chỉ có ở một vài nơi trên thế giới.

 

Mặt trời, nước và gió là những nguồn năng lượng thay thế khác. Gió quay cối xay gió và di chuyển thuyền buồm. Đó là một nguồn năng lượng sạch và có rất nhiều. Thật không may, nếu gió không thổi thì cũng không có năng lượng gió. Khi nước di chuyển từ một nơi cao đến nơi thấp hơn, nó làm ra năng lượng. Tuy nhiên con người phải xây đập nước để sử dụng nguồn năng lượng này. Xây đập tốn rất nhiều tiền, vì vậy năng lượng nước cũng đắt đỏ.

Mặt trời giải phóng một lượng lớn năng lượng mỗi ngày. Năng lượng này có thể được chuyển hóa thành điện năng. Nhiều quốc gia sử dụng năng lượng mặt trời cho cuộc sống hằng ngày của họ. Tấm pin mặt trời trên mái nhà có thể tạo ra đủ năng lượng để sưởi ấm hoặc làm mát toàn bộ ngôi nhà. Năng lượng mặt trời không chỉ phong phú và vô hạn mà còn sạch sẽ và an toàn.

Mặc dù có một số nhược điểm, tiềm năng của các nguồn năng lượng thay thế là rất lớn. Tuy nhiên, làm thế nào để có thể tận dụng triệt để các nguồn năng lượng là một câu hỏi dành cho các nhà nghiên cứu trên toàn thế giới.

Task 1. The words in the box all appear in the passage. Fill each blank with a suitable word (Use a dictionary u hen neeessary). (Những từ trong khung xuất hiện trong đoạn văn. Điền vào chỗ trống một từ thích hợp.)

Unit 11: Sources of energy - Các nguồn năng lượng

Unit 11: Sources of energy – Các nguồn năng lượng

Alternative          limited             energy               released                exhausted

l. Six hundred balloons were released at the ceremony.

2. They are looking for alternative methods of making it.

3. People use energy to run machines, heat and cool their homes.

4. The food in the restaurant is cheap, but the choice is rather limited.

5. Fuel supplies are nearly exhausted.

Task 2. Scan the passage and write down the advaniage(s) and disadvantage(s) of each alternative source of enerey. (Đọc lướt đoạn văn và viết ra thuận lợi và bất lợi của từng nguồn năng lượng  thay thế.)

 

Source of energyAdvantagesDisadvantages
Nuclear powerit’s unlimited.It can be very dangerous.
Solar energyIt’s available. It’s not only plentiful and infinite but also clean and safe.It’s only possible.
Water powerIt’s clean and unlimited.It’s expensive.
 Wind powerIt’s clean and unlimited.There’s no wind energy when there is no wind.
Geothermal heatIt’s available.It’s available only in a few places.

Task 3. Answer the questions. (Trả lời các câu hỏi.)

1. What is our major source of energy ?

—> Our major source of energy comes from fossil fuels.

2. How many sources of energy are mentioned in the text, and which one do you think has the most potential?

—> Five sources of energy are mentioned in the text. They are nuclear power, solar energy, water power, wind power, geothermal heat. I think solar energy is the most potential.

After you read

Complete the summary of the readinư passase by filling each blank with a suitable word from the box. (Hoàn thành hán torn ten cùa bài đọc bằng, cách điển vào cho trổng một từ thich hợp trong khung.)

One                   environment              alternative                limited

Unlimited         Sources                      energy                      fuels

We need energy to live and work. Our major source of (1) energy is oil. Oil is (2) one kind of fossil fuel. The amount ot fossil (3) fuels in the world is (4) limited. Therefore, we must save it, and at the same time, we must find new sources of energy. Geothermal heat and nuclear power are (5) alternative sources of energy. They can give us electricity. Other alternative (6) sources are the sun, waves and water. These sources are not only (7) unlimited and available but also clean and safe for the (8) environment. People should develop and use them more and more in the future.

SPEAKING

Task 1. The following statements list some advantages and disadvantages of various sources of energy. Read and tick (V) the appropriate box A (for the advantages) or D (for the disadvantages), then compare the results with partner’s. (Các báo cáo sau đây liệt kê một số lợi thế và bất lợi của các nguồn năng lượng khác nhau. Đọc và đánh dấu (V) vào ô thích hợp A (đối với những lợi thế) hoặc D (đối với những khó khăn), sau đó so sánh kết quả với các bạn học.)

1. D             2. D            3. D            4. A          5. D             6. A        7. D

Task 2. Work in pairs. Talk with your friend about the advantages and disadvantages of using each alternative source of energy, using the suggestions from Task 1. (làm việc theo cặp. Nói chuyện với bạn bè về những lợi thế và bất lợi của việc sử dụng mỗi nguồn năng lượng thay thế  sử dụng những từ Task 1.)

Wind solar

A: I think that can be an alternative source of energy.

B: Why do you think so?

A: Because our major sources of energy are running out while wind is abundant and unlimited.

B: I know it is also clean and safe to the enviroment.

However, it is not available when there is no wind.

Solar energy

A: I think that solar energy can be an alternative source of energy.

B: Why do you think so?

A: Because our major sources of energy are running out while solar energy is plentiful and infinite.

B: I know it is also clean and safe to the enviroment.

However, it is only possible during the day time.

Nuclear power

A: I think that nuclear power can be an alternative source ofenergy

B: Why do you think so?

A: Because our major sources of energy are running out while nuclear power is unlimited.

B: However, it can be very dangerous. A nuclear reactor releases radiation which is harmful to the environment.

Water power

A: I think that water power can be an alternative source of energy.

B: Why do you think so?

A: Because our major sources of energy are running out while water is unlimited.

B: I know it also provides energy without pollution.

However, it is expensive to build a dam for hydroeiectricity.

Geothermal heat

A: I think that geothermal heat can be an alternative source of energy.

B: Why do you think so?

A: Because our major sources of energy are running out while this heat is available.

B: I know it also provides energy without pollution.

However, it is possible only in a few places in the world.

Task 3. Work in groups. Express your belief on the increasing use of alternative source of energy in the future, using the ideas from Task 2. (Bày tỏ lòng tin của bạn vào việc sử dụng nguồn năng lượng thay thế trong, tương lai, bằng cách sử dụng các ý đồ nghị từ Task 2.)

LISTENING

Before you listen

Work in pairs. List some of the things you use energy for in your house. (Liệt kê một số trong những thứ sử dụng nâng lượng trong nhà của bạn.)

–  Oil, coal, natural gas are called…

–  coal, water are natural resources.

–  wind and solar power are called renewable.

While you listen

Task 1. Listen and complete the sentences by circling the letter A, B, C or D.

(Lắng nghe và hoàn thành câu bằng cách khoanh tròn chữ cái A, B, C hoặc D.)

1.   Ecology is the study of…………..

A.  human beings and animals

B.  the environment and solar energy

C. natural and alternative resources

D. human beings and their environment

2. The natural environment consists of……………….

A.  the oceans and the land          B. the sun and the air

C. all natural resources              D. the air and the oceans

3.   If the resource can be…………., it is called renewable.

A.  burnt quickly                         B. used easily

C. divided properly                    D. replaced quickly

4.   Grass for animals is a………….resource.

A.  renewable                              B. nonrenewable

c. limited                                     D. clean

5.   According to the passage, coal is nonrenewable because it takes ………to make it.

A.  billions of years                    B. millions of years

C.  three million years               D. three billion years

1. D                 2.C                         3. D                4.A                 5. B

TAPESCRIPT

The natural environment includes all natural resources that are necessary for life: the air. the oceans, the sun and the land. Because they are vital for life these resources must be protected from pollution and conserved. Ecologists study their importance and how to use them caretully.

According to ecologists, resources are divided into 2 groups: renewable and non-renewable. When a resource can be replaced quickly, it is called renewable. If it cannot be replaced quickly and easily, it is non renewable. For example grass for animals is a renewable resource. When cows eat the grass, the resource is used. If the soil is fertilized and protected, more grass will grow. Coal, however, is nonrenewable because it takes millions of years to make coal. All fossil fuels are nonrenevvable resources.

Solar energy, air, and water are renewable resources because there is an unlimited supply. However, this definition may be changed if people are not careful with these resources. The amount of solar energy that reaches the earth depends on the atmosphere. If the atmosphere is polluted, the solar energy that reaches the earth may be dangerous. If life is going to continue, the air must contain the correct amount of nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon dioxide (CO:), and other gases. If humans continue to pollute the air, it will not contain the correct amount of these aases.

Task 2. Listen again to the last pan of the talk and write in the missing words. (Nghe lại phần cuối cùng của cuộc nói chuyện và viết các từ còn thiếu)

Solar enerey, air, and water are renewable resources because there is an unlimited supply. However, this definition may change if people are not careful with these resourees. The amount of solar energy that reaches the earth depends on the atmosphere. If the atmosphere is polluted, the solar energy that reaches the earth may be dangerous. If life is going to continue, the air must contain the correct amount of nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon dioxide (CO), and other gases. If humans continue to pollute the air, it will not contain the correct amount of these gases.

After you listen

Which Iiroup do these sources of energy belons to? Put a tick (V) in the right column. (Các nguồn nũng lirợtig này thuộc vào nhóm nào? Ghi dầu (N) vào cột đúng.)

Sources of energy

Non-renewable

Renewable

Coal

V

Geotherman heat

V

Petroleum

V

Solar energy

V

Oil

V

Wind energy

V

Gas

V

WRITING

Task 1. Study the chart about energy consumption in Highland in 2000 and fill in the gaps with the information from the chart. (Nghiên cứu biểu đồ về tiêu thụ năng lượng ở Tây Nguyên năm 2000 và điền vào các chỗ trống với các thông tin từ biểu đồ.)

The chart shows the energy consumption in Highland in 2000. As can be seen, the total energy consumption was 100 million tons petroleum made up the largest amount of this figure (57 million tons). This was followed by the consumption of Nuclear & Hydroelectricity (40 million tons). Nuclear & Hydroelectrieity made up the (3) smallest amount of enersy consumption (20 million tons).

Task 2. Continue your description of the trends in energy consumption in the year 2005 in Highland. (Tiếp tục mô tả của bạn về các xu hướng tiêu thụ năng lượng trong năm 2005 tại Tây Nguyên).

The chart shows the energy consumption in Highland in 2005. As can be seen, I the total energy consumption was 170 million tons. Nuclear and Hydroelectricity made up the largest amount of this figure (75 million tons). This was followed by the consumption of petroleum (50 million tons). Coal made up the smallest amount of energy consumption (45 million tons).

Task 3. Describe the chart, using the information from Task 1 and Task 2. (Mô tả biểu đồ, sử dụng các thông tin từ Task 1 và Task 2.)

1. The chart shows the energy consumption in Highland in 2000 and 2005. It’s clear that the total energy consumption was 287 millions tons in two years. Petroleum made up the largest amount in 2000 (57 million tons) whereas the petroleum consumption was 50 million in 2005. In 2000 the consumption of coal came the second (40 million tons); however this consumption came the third (45 millions tons) in 2005 after the petroleum consumption. And the consumption of Nuclear and Hydroelectricity was 20 million in 2000. Nevertheless. Nuclear and I Hydroelectricity consumption was 75 million tons in 2005. In conclusion, the I energy consumption in Highland in 2000 is less than that in 2005.

2. The chart shows the energy consumption in Highland in 2000 and 2005. As I can be seen, the total energy consumption in 2005 was 170 million tons. So it was I higher than in 2000 (117 million tons). In 2005, Nuclear and Hydroelectricity made up the largest amount of this figure (75 million tons). This was followed by the I consumption of petroleum (50 million tons). Both of them were higher than in 2000. However, coal decreased the amount of the energy consumption (from 57 million tons in 2000 to 50 million tons).

LANGUAGE FOCUS

Exercise 1. Rewrite the following sentences, using a present participial phrase.

1. The boy who is playing the piano is Ben.

—> The boy playine the piano is Ben.

2. Do you know the man who is coming towards us?

—> Do you know the man coming towards us?

3. The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are setting wet.

—>  The people waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

4. The scientists who researches the causes of cancer are making progress.

—> The scientists researching the causes of cancer are making prouress.

5. The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

—> The fence surrounding our house is made of wood.                                   6. We have an apartment which overlooks the park.

—> We have an apartment overlooking the park.

Exercise 2. Rewrite the following; sentences, using a past participial phrase.

1. The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting.

—> The ideas presented in that book are interesting.

2. I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

—> I come from a city located in the southern part of the country

3. Thev live in a house that was built in 1890.

—> They live in a house built in 1890.

4. The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

—> The photographs published in the newspaper were extraordinary.

5. The experiment which was conducted at the University of Chicago was successful.

—> The experiment conducted at the University of Chicago was successful.

6. They work in a hospital which was sponsored by the government.

—> They work in a hospital sponsored by the government.

Exercise 3. Rewrite the following sentences, using an infinitive phrase.

1. John was the last man who reached the top of the mountain.

—> John was the last man to reach the top of the mountain.

2. The last person who leaves the room must turn oil the light.

—> The last person to leave the room must turn off the light.

3. The first person that we must see is Mr. Smith.

—> The first person for us to see is Mr. Smith.

4. This is the second person who was killed in that way.

—> This is the second person to be killed in that way.

5. The first person who catches the ball will be the winner.

—> The first person to catch the ball will be the winner.

TEST YOUSELF D

I. LISTENING

Listen to the passage about water conservation and complete the following sentences. (Nghe đoạn văn về bảo tồn nguồn nước và hoàn thành các câu sau đây.)

1. Without water, people and other living things cannot live.

2. If there were no plants, water would run off after it rains.

3. Water can be held on the land by planting vegetation.

4. Dams are built across rivers to help hold back the water.

5. Water is stored in reservoirs during wet seasons for use in dry seasons.

TAPESCRIPT

Water is very necessary to people and other living things. Without water, people, animal and plants cannot live. And if there were no plants, water would run off after it rains; and this would cause a lot of floods. But nature has many ways of consening and controlling water. Water can be held on the land by planting vegetation. Forests and grass should be planted in where there are no natural growths. Dams built across rivers help hold back the water. Reservoirs behind the dams store water during wet seasons for use in dry seasons. Dams help prevent floods by controlling the flow of water.

II. READING

Read the passace and answer the questions. (Đọc kĩ đoạn văn và trả lời các câu hỏi.)

Không khí, nước và đất cần thiết cho sự sống còn của tất cả các sinh vật. Không khí bị ô nhiễm nặng có thể xảy ra bệnh tật và thậm chí tử vong. Nước ô nhiễm giết chết cá và các sinh vật biển khác. Ô nhiễm đất làm giảm số lượng đất có sẵn để trồng cây lương thực, vấn đề ô nhiễm môi trường rất phức tạp bởi vì ô nhiễm nhiều gây ra bởi những thứ mang lại lợi ích cho mọi người. Vi dụ, khí thải từ ô tô gây ra một tỉ lệ lớn ô nhiễm không khí. Tuy nhiên, ô tô cung cấp giao thông vận tải cho hàng triệu người. Nhà máy xả nhiều vật liệu gây ô nhiễm không khí và nước, nhưng các nhà máy cung cấp việc làm cho một số lượng lớn người dân. Vì vậy, để chấm dứt hay giảm đáng kể ô nhiễm ngay lập tức, mọi người sẽ phải ngưng sử dụng nhiều thứ có lợi cho họ. Ô nhiễm có thể sẽ được giảm dần theo nhiều cách. Các nhà khoa học và các kĩ sư có thể làm việc để tìm cách giảm bớt lượng ô nhiễm mà những thứ như xe ô tô và các nhà máy gây ra. Chính phủ có thể thông qua và thực thi luật yêu cầu các doanh nghiệp và cá nhân phải ngưng hoặc cắt giảm một số hoạt động gây ô nhiễm môi trường.

1.  What is necessary for the survival of all living things?

—> Air, water and soil are necessary for the survival of all things.

2. What can polluted air, water and soil cause?

—> Badly polluted air can cause illness, and even death. Polluted water kills fish and other maring life. Pollution of soil reduces the amount of land that is available for growing food.

3. Why is the pollution problem complicated? Give one example.

—> Because much pollution is caused by things that benefit people. For example, exhaust from automobile causes a large percentage of air pollution, but the automobile provides transportation for millions of people.

4. What would people have to do to end or to reduce pollution immediately?

—> They would have to stop using many things that benefit them.

5. How can governments control pollution?

—> Governments can pass and enforce laws that require businesses and individuals to stop, or cut down on certain pollutinc activities.

III. GRAMMAR

a. Listen and put a tick (V) in the right box, paying attention to the pronunciation of the underlined part of the word. (Lắng nghe và đánh dấu (V) trong ô bên phải, cúủ ý đến cách phát âm của phần gạch dưới của từ đó.)

1.C                         2. A                             3. D

b. Complete each of the following sentences, using the correct form (to-infinitive or participle) of the verb below: (Hoàn thành mỗi câu sau đây bằng cách sử dụng đúng mẫu (to-infinitive or participle) của động từ dưới đây.)

drink                 invite                  blow

live                    ring                    leave

1. Sometimes life is very unpleasant for people living near airports.

2. I was woken up by a bell ringing.

3. John was the last student to leave the lecture hall.

4. Do you have anything to drink?

5. None of the people invited to the party can come.

6. There was a tree blown down in the storm last night.

IV. WRITING

Write a paragraph of 120 words about the measures to protect the environment, using the cues given below. (Viết một đoạn văn khoảng 120 từ về các biện pháp bảo vệ môi trường, bằng cách sử dụng những gợi ý đưa ra dưới đây.)

Introduction:

–        we / try to find solutions / environmental pollution.

Body:

  • people / stop cutting trees for timber.
  •  instead, they / plant trees and forests.
  •  people / reduce using cars, motorbikes / that cause noise and air pollution.
  • we / prevent farmers / use fertilizers and pesticides / that damage soil.
  • people / not leave / litter on land and in water.
  • we / prohibit factories / dump industrial waste rivers and lakes.
  • Conclusion:
  •  it / be high time / governments / have suitable measures that require companies, individuals / stop cutting down polluting activities.

You may begin with:

We are trying to find solutions to environmental pollution. People should stop cutting trees for timber…

We are trying to find solutions to environmental pollution problem. People should stop cutting trees for timber, Instead, they should plant more trees and forests. They should reduce using cars and motorbikes that cause noise and air pollution. We should prevent farmers from using fertilizers and pesticides that damage the soil. People should not litter on the land and in the water. We should prohibit factories from dumping industrial wastes into rivers and lakes. It is high time governments over the world had measures that require companies and individuals to stop or cut down on polluting activities.

Thảo luận cho bài: Unit 11: Sources of energy – Các nguồn năng lượng