Unit 10: Nature in danger – Thiên nhiên đang lâm nguy

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Unit 10: Nature in danger – Thiên nhiên đang lâm nguy

Unit 11: Sources of energy – Các nguồn năng lượng

GRAMMAR

Giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

1. Giới thiệu

Đại từ quan hệ có thể làm túc từ của giới từ.

e.g: – This is the bus that I’ve been waiting for.

(Đây là chiếc xe buýt mà tôi đợi nãy giờ. )

(I’ve been waiting for the bus.)

–   The restaurant that we usually go to is closed today.

( Nhà hàng mà chúng tôi thường đến hôm nay không mở cửa.)

(We usually go to the restaurant.)

Trong văn nói thân mật, chúng ta thường đặt giới từ ở cuối mệnh đề quan hệ. Chúng ta không dùng đại từ nhân xưng sau giới từ

e.g: NOT: the restaurant that we go to it.

NOT: someone who I work with her.

2. Lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ

Chúng ta thường lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ khi nó làm túc từ của giới từ.

e.g: – The bus (that) I’m waiting for is late.

(Xe buýt (mà) tôi đang chờ đến muộn)

–   Is this the article (which) you were interested in?

(Đây  là bài viết (mà) bạn đã quan tâm sao?)

–   That’s the man (who) I was talking about.

(Đó là người đàn ông (người) tôi đang nói đến)

-I can’t remember the name of the hotel we stayed at.

(Tôi không thể nhớ tên khách sạn chúng tôi ở)

3. Giới từ đứng đầu mệnh đề quan hệ

e.g: – Was that the restaurant to which you usually go?

(Đó có phải là nhà hàng bọn thường đến ăn không?)

–   Electronics is a subject about which I know very little.

(Điện tử là một lĩnh vực mà tôi biết rất ít.)

Trong tiếng Anh trang trọng, giới từ đứng đầu mệnh đề quan hệ, trước which hoặc whom.

Chúng ta không thể đặt giới từ trước that hoặc who.

Unit 10: Nature in danger - Thiên nhiên đang lâm nguy

Unit 10: Nature in danger – Thiên nhiên đang lâm nguy

e.g: a subject (that) I know little about

NOT: a subject-about that I know little the person (who) I got the figures from

NOT: the-person from who I got the figures

READING

Before you read

Work in pair. Read these facts about endangered species and discuss the questions below (Hãy đọc những sự thật về các loài có nguy cơ tuyệt chủng và thảo luận các câu hỏi dưới đây.)

1. What do you understand from the facts above?

-> The facts above show that the numbers of some wild/ rare animals such as cheetahs, pandas and Silberian tigers have become small/ extinct.

2.  Can you explain why the numbers of these animals have become small?

-> The numbers of these animals have become small because they are killed for food, fur or skin.

While you read

Loài người chỉ là một loài nhỏ trong thế giới sinh vật. Nhiều loài khác tồn tại trên hành tinh này. Tuy nhiên, con người có ảnh hưởng lớn đến phần còn lại của thế giới. Họ đang thay đổi môi trường bằng cách xây dựng thành phố và làng mạc ở nơi trước kia từng là rừng. Họ đang ảnh hưởng đến nguồn cung cấp nước bằng cách sử dụng nước cho công nghiệp và nông nghiệp. Họ đang thay đổi tình trạng thời tiết bằng việc chặt cây cối trong các khu rừng. Và họ đang phá hủy không khí bằng cách thải các chất gây ô nhiễm vào không khí.

Có thể nói rằng con người thay đổi môi trường trên mọi phương diện thông qua các hành động của họ và thói quen của họ. Điều này đã dẫn đến hai hậu quả nghiêm trọng. Đầu tiên là nhiều loài động vật quý hiếm bị giết. Thứ hai là môi trường nơi mà các loài động vật đang sinh sống bị phá hủy nặng. Kết quá là, số lượng các loài động vật quý hiếm đang giảm rất nhanh chóng, chúng đang có nguy cơ bị tuyệt chủng.

Để đảm bảo rằng các loài động vật quý hiếm này không biến mất, những nỗ lực đã được thực hiện để bảo vệ môi trường mà chúng đang sống. Các nhà khoa học đã lập danh sách các loài có nguy cơ tuyệt chủng và dề nghị cách để cứu chúng. Nhiều tổ chức đã được thành lập và nhiều quỹ được xây dựng. Hàng ngàn các công viên quốc gia trên toàn thế giới đã được thiết lập để bảo vệ động vật có nguy cơ tuyệt chủng. Luật pháp được đưa ra để cấm việc giết hại động vật có nguy cơ tuyệt chủng và sự tàn phá của môi trường nơi chúng sinh sống.

Nếu sự can thiệp của người dân với môi trường giảm, nhiều loài sẽ sống sót và sinh sản nhiều hơn. Trái đất sẽ là một hành tinh hạnh phúc nơi con người động vật và thực vật cùng chung sống một cách hòa bình.

Work in pairs

Task 1. The words in the box all appear in the passase. Fill each blank with a suitable word. (Những từ trong khung xuất hiện trong đoạn văn. Điền vào chỗ trống với một từ thích hợp.)

Pollutants                     decreasing                  protect

Interference                  extinct                         endangered

1. Dinosaurs became extinct millions of years ago.

2. She tried to protect herself from the wind.

3. This species of bird is decreasing in numbers every year.

4. The chemical pollutants from cars and factories make the air, water and soil dangerously dirty.

5. The blue whale is a(an) endangered species.

6. Because of the interference of human beings, many animals have become extinct.

Task 2. Circle A, B, C or D that best sums up each paragraph. (Khoanh tròn A,

B, C hoặc D thể hiện ý chính của mỗi đoạn.)

1.     Paragraph 1

A. Human beings need to grow food.

B. Human beings pollute the environment.

C. Human beings interfere with nature.

D. People should stop living in cities and villages.

2.    Paragraph 2

A. Many animals are disappearing.

B. Human beings are responsible for the changes in the environment.

C. People are in danger of becoming extinct.

D. The human race is also an endangered species.

3.     Paragraph 3

A. Human beings have made efforts to protect the environment.

B. Scientists have made a long list of endangered species.

C. People should be kept away from animals and plants.

D. Rare animals do not disappear.

4.     Paragraph 4

A. The survival of endangered species

B. The Earth – a happy planet

C. Conditions for a peaceful co-existence

D. People’s interference with the

1.C         2. B             3. A                   4. C

Task 3. Answer the questions: (Trả lời các câu hỏi.)

1. What are the four ways by which human beings are changing the world?

Four ways that people change the world are:

  •  They are changing the environment bv building cities & villages.
  • They are affecting the water supply by using water for industry and agriculture.
  • They are changing weather conditions by cutting down trees in the forests.
  • They are destnoying the air by adding pollutants like smoke from factories and tumes.

2. What are the serious consequences of people’s interference with the env ironment?

The serious consequences of people’s interference with the environment are:

  • Many kinds of rare animals are killed.
  • The environment where these animals are living is badly destroyed.
  •  The numbers of rare animals is decreasing so rapidly that they are in danger of becoming extinct.

3. What has been done to protect the environment?

Many things have been done to protect endangered nature, such as:

  • Many organizations have been set up and money has been raised to save rare animals.
  • Thousands of national parks have been established.
  • Laws have been passed to prohibit killing endangered animals.

After you read

Work in groups. Find out why some animals have become extinct. (Làm việc theo nhóm. Tìm hiểu lí do tại sao một số loài động vật đã bị tuyệt chủng.)

  • People kill animals for fur, skin and food.
  • People keep animals as pets.
  • People hunt or capture animals for recreation or entertainment.

Task 1. Work in pairs. Below are some reasons why nature is threatened. Put them in the order of importance. (Làm việc theo cặp. Dưới đây là một số lí do tại sao thiên nhiên đang bị đe dọa. Đặt chúng theo thứ tự quan trọng.)

• killing endangered animals for fur, skin and food

• keeping animals as pets

• hunting or capturing animals for recreation or entertainment

• burning forests

• cutting down trees for wood

• using fertilizers and pesticides for cultivation

• discharging chemical pollutants into the environment

  1. Burning forests.
  2. Cutting down trees for wood.
  3. Discharging chemical pollutants into the environment.
  4. Using fertilizers and pesticides for cultivation.
  5. Killing endangered animals for fur, skin and food.
  6. Hunting or capturing animals for recreation or entertainment.
  7. Keeping animals as pets.

Task 2. Match the reasons in Task 1 with possible measures for protecting the environment below. (Nối các lí do trong Task 1 với các biện pháp có thể để bảo vệ tự nhiên đang bị đe dọa dưới đây.)

  1. Burning forests.
  2. Cutting down trees for wood.
  3. Dischareing chemical pollutants into the environment.
  4. Using fertilizers and pesticides for cultivation.
  5. Killing endangered animals for fur, skin and food.
  6. Hunting or capturing animals for recreation or entertainment.
  7. Keeping animals as pets.

A. Killing endangered animals for fur, skin and food should be banned.

B. Keeping animals as pets should be discouraged.

C. Animals should not be captured for recreation and entertainment.

D. Planting trees should be encourased.

E. Decreasing the use of fertilizers and pesticides for farming should be encouraged.

F. Discharging chemical pollutants into the environment should be prohibited.

Key: 1.2-D              3. F                  4. E      5.A            6. C           7. B

Task 3. Work in pairs. State the negative impacts made by people on the environment and suggest measures to protect it. (Làm việc theo cặp. Hay nói về tác động tiêu cực của con người lên môi trường và đề xuất các biện pháp để bảo vệ nó.)

LISTENING

Before you listen

Work in pairs. Name some national parks in Vietnam. (Làm việc theo cặp. Tên một số vườn quốc gia ở việt Nam.)

  • Cuc Phuong National Park
  • Cat Tien National Park
  • Bach Ma National Park

While you listen

Task 1. Listen to the passage and decide if the following statements are true (T) Or false (F). (Nghe đoạn văn và quyết định các báo cáo sau đây là đúng (T) hoặc sai (F).)

1. National parks protect and preserve the natural beauty of the land.           T

2. They usually contain a variety of scenic features.                         F

3. All national parks are in danger of being destroyed.                       T

4. Large areas of national parks can be destroved by fire.                  T

5. Visitors do not help to preserve and protect national parks.            T

TAPESCRIPT

In many parts of the United States, large areas of land have been made into national parks to protect and preserve the natural beauty of the land. Naiional parks usually contain a variety of scenic features, such as mountains, caves, lakes, rare animals and plants. Today, there are 52 national parks in the United States, covering approximately 3 per cent of the total land area of the country. National parks are open to the public and have millions of visitors every year.

Many national parks, however, are in danger of being destroyed. Rare animals in national parks are killed or hunted for fur, skin or other parts. Trees are cut down for wood. Large areas of national parks also have experience of being on fire fires caused by careless people. The increasing number of visitors is harming the parks due to the pollution from their vehicles.

If these problems are not solved immediately, and if there is not enough money for the parks’ staff and maintenance of their resources, many national parks will be completely destroyed.

Task 2. Listen again and answer the questions. (Lắng nghe một lần nữa và trả lời các câu hỏi.)

1. How many national parks are there in the United States?

—   > There are 52 national parks in the United States.

2. How many people visit national parks every year?

—> Millions of people visit national parks every year.

3. Can you name some problems which national parks are facing currently?

—> – Rare animals are killed or hunted for fur.

–   Trees are cut down for wood.

–   Forest fires.

–   Pollution from visitors’ vehicles.

4. What should be done to protect them?

—> Rare animals and trees should be protected.

Fires caused by careless people should be limited.

Pollution from their vehicles should be decreased.

Money should be raised for the parks’ staff and maintenance of their sources.

AFTER YOU LISTEN

Work in groups. Summarize The passage, using the information in Tasks 1 and 2. (Làm việc theo nhóm. Tóm tắt đoạn văn, bằng cách sử dụng các thông tin trong Tasks 1 và 2.)

Fill in each gap with a suitable word.

National parks are to protect and preserve the natural beauty of land. They contain a variety of scenic features. There are 52 national parks in the USA and millions of people visit it every year. Many national parks are in danger of being destroyed. If their problems are not solved, they will be destroyed completely

WRITING

Write a description of Cat Ba National Park, using the facts and figures below (Viết một đoạn mô tả về Vườn quốc gia Cát Bà, bằng cách sử dụng các dữ kiện và con số dưới  đây.)

Cat Ba National Park is located on Cat Ba island, 120km from Hanoi and 20km east of Hai Phong. Its total area is 15.200 ha, including 9.800 ha of ocean. It’s famous for both tropical forests and coastal water with white sand beach abundant natural resources, beautiful landscape and many kinds of rare animals and plants There are 300 species of fish, 40 kinds of animals. 150 different birds and 620 species of plants. The stone tool and human bones are found in the island’s caves that people inhabited there at least 6.000 years aso.

LANGUAGE FOCUS

Exercise 1. Choose the suitable italicised words to complete the following sentences.

1. To who/whom it may concern.

-> To whom it may concern.

2. It was a service for which/that I was grateful.

-> It was a service for which I was grateful.

3.  The success of a shared holiday depends on who/whom you share it with.

-> The success of a shared holiday depends on whom you share it with.

4.  Do you like the person who/whom sits next to you?

-> Do you like the person who sits next to you?

5.  Midway through the second half, Manchester United scored their third goal, at that which point Leeds United save up completely.

-> Midway through the second half. Manchester United scored their third goal, at that point Leeds United gave up completely.

6.  There is one person to whom/who I owe more than I can say.

-> There is one person to whom 1 own more than I can say.

7.  It was the kind of accident for which/that nobody was really to blame.

-> It was the kind of accident for which nobody was really to blame.

Exercise 2. Combine the following sentences, using preposition + whom or which.

1. The man was very kind. I talked to him yesterday.

-> The man to whom I talked yesterday was very kind.

2.  The man works in the hospital. I told you about him.

-> The man about whom I told you works in the hospital.

3.  The woman teaches me English. I am telling you about her.

-> The woman about whom I am telling you teaches me English.

4.  The movie is fantastic. They are talking about it.

-> The movie about which they are talking is fantastic.

5.   The picture was beautiful. She was looking at it.

-> The picture at which she was looking was beautiful.

6. I’ll give you the address. You should write to it.

-> I’ll give you the address to which you should write.

Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences, using who, whom, which or that

1.  Jack is the one whom/ that I miss most.

2. It was a kind of computer with which I was not familiar.

3. Do you get on with the person who lives next door?

4. I must thank the man from whom I got the present.

5. It is an event which/ that I would rather not forget.

6. The meeting to which I went was interesting.

7. The person who did it was never caught.

8. That’s the woman to whom Jim used to be married.

Thảo luận cho bài: Unit 10: Nature in danger – Thiên nhiên đang lâm nguy