Lesson 17: Labor and Employment
Please refer to the document:
I. LESSONS LEARNED
- Demonstrated our country has abundant labor resources with rich production tradition and experience, labor quality is raised.
- Represented the shift of labor structure in our country.
- Understanding why employment is a major socio-economic issue, the importance of employing in the process of economic development in the direction of industrialization, modernization, problem solving and problem solving. made for workers.
- Analysis of data tables.
- Establish the relationship between population, labor and employment.
Determined to learn to become a professional worker.
II. LESSON CONTENT
1. Strengths and limitations of our country’s labor force (characteristics of labor force)
– Quantity: In 2009, the population of KT in Vietnam is 47.74 million. Every year more than 1 million workers are added.
- Laborers in our country are hard-working, creative, experienced in agriculture, forestry, fishery, handicraft industry accumulated through generations …
- Labor quality has been improved. Number of technically skilled workers accounts for 25% of the total number of employees
- Laborers in our country generally lack industrial style, labor discipline is not high.
- The labor force with high qualifications is still low, especially the managerial staff and technical workers are in short supply. Unskilled workers account for about 70%
- The distribution is uneven, concentrated in big cities, mountainous midlands lack of labor, especially technical workers.
2- Changes in the structure of labor?
a. The structure of labor in the national economic branches of our country has shifted towards industrialization and modernization, but in general it is still slow.
- In the agriculture, forestry and fishery sectors, the rate of employment tended to decrease from 65.1% (2000) to 57.3% (2005) by 7.8%. Overall, this reduction is relatively slow and still accounts for the largest share.
- Industry and construction are the regions with the lowest employment rates and are on the rising trend from 13.1% (2000) to 18.2% in 2005.
- Service sector: The rate of labor is still modest, the rate is on the upward trend but still slow.
=> Thus, the structure of labor has changed in the direction of industrialization, modernization, but slow change.
b. The structure of labor by economic sectors also has a shift, namely:
- The rate of labor of the state sector has increased but not stable from 9.3% (2000) to 9.5% (2005)
- The percentage of non-state economic sector decreased but still the largest 88.9% (2005)
- The rate of employment of the foreign-invested sector has continuously increased, but still accounts for the smallest share of 0.6% (2000) to 1.6% (2005).
c. The structure of labor in urban and rural areas also changed positively.
- Urban labor increased by 20.1% (1996) -> 25% (2005).
- Rural workers have a 79.9% reduction (1996) -> 75% (2005)
In general, labor productivity has been increasing, but still low. Most of the laborers have low incomes, unused working time funds.
3- What are the problems and solutions?
a. Employment is a major socio-economic issue in our country today
- The diversification of economic sectors, manufacturing and service sectors creates about 1 million new jobs every year
- However, unemployment and underemployment are still acute.
- In 2005, the national unemployment rate was 2.1%, the unemployment rate was 8.1%. In urban areas 5.3% and 4.5% in rural areas were 1.1% and 9.3% respectively.
- In 2009, unemployment in urban areas was 4.6%, and rural areas with underemployment were 6.51%
- Redistribution of population and labor force.
- To well implement the population and reproductive health policies.
- Diversification of production activities (handicrafts, services …).
- To attract foreign investment capital to expand export production.
- Expanded, diversified types of training at all levels, professions …
- Promote labor export.